Anonymous asked:"Can you explain why Europeans were much more technologically advanced than the indigenous populations of Africa? I mean, these cultures hadn't even invented sewage systems, which is something the Romans were able to design and implement in 800-735 BC (a long fucking time before "the white man" colonized it)... I mean fuck, without "the white man", they would probably still be in the fucking bronze age."

shitrichcollegekidssay:

I don’t really know what kind of history books bigots like you read.

The Great Libraries of Timbuktu? The steel metallurgy of the Haya? Dentistry? Caesarean section? Premature neonatal care? Mathematics, architecture, engineering?

I know it’s hard for a racist like you who imagines “technological advancement” to be some kind of end-all-be-all, or proof of some “inherent intelligence”. I know, I know. It’s hard to imagine, but Europeans have been drawing knowledge from everyone around them since the dawn of time. What did you think ended the Dark Ages?

Your magical (read: white supremacist) idea of a purely 'white' Rome never existed.

Nevertheless…

The Minoan culture on the island of Crete between 1500-1700 B.C.E. had a highly developed waste management system. They had very advanced plumbing and designed places to dispose of organic wastes. Knossos, the capital city, had a central courtyard with baths that were filled and emptied using terra-cotta pipes. This piping system is similar to techniques used today. They had large sewers built of stone.”

In case you needed further clarification, neither the Minoans nor other (later) Greeks were ethnically uniform. They also had the first flush toilets, dating back to 18th century B.C.E. They had flushing toilets, with wooden seats and an overhead reservoir. The Minoan royals were the last group to use flushing toilets until the re-development of that technology in 1596.

Oh, and look the Mayans had indoor plumbing, acqueducts, and pressurized water too. I mean, you can ignore that the area Mayans lived in had little to few rivers, no lakes or standing water, nor other sources of running water, while simultaneously dealing with monsoons and flooding due to one of the heaviest yearly rainfalls in the Americas.

Classic Maya even used household water filters using locally abundant limestone carved into a porous cylinder, made so as to work in a manner strikingly similar to modern ceramic water filters.

Of course, by this time millenia later none of your precious “white people” had developed any methods besides shitting in pots.

Continuing, the earliest archaeological record of an advanced system of drainage comes from the Indus Valley Civilization from around 3100 B.C.E in what is now Pakistan and North India. By 2500 B.C.E (almost 5,000 years ago), they had highly developed drainage systems where wastewater from each house flowed into the main drain.
All houses in the major cities of Harappa and Mohenjo−daro had access to water and drainage facilities. Waste water was directed to covered drains which lined the major streets directed to covered drains, which also lined all major streets. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom. The mains that carried wastewater to a cesspit were tall enough for people to walk through. Reservoirs, a central drainage system, fresh water pumped into the homes. Pools. Baths.
It was made from bricks smoothened and joined together seamlessly. The expert masonry kept the sewer watertight. Drops at regular intervals acted like an automatic cleaning device.

Filters for solid waste.

Sorry, what were the British doing up until like, 200 years ago? Shitting in the streets? Oh yeah.
I mean, I could get into how by the Shang Dynasty (roughly 1600 B.C.E.), China had sophisticated plumbing including pressure inverted siphons.

Or into the city of Amarna, Ancient Egypt. Or Persepolis, Persia and the Achaemenids in 600 B.C.E.
But, I mean, it sounds like the only one still in the Bronze Age is you.

todayinhistory:

December 24th 1914: Christmas Truce

On this day in 1914, troops across the Western Front during the First World War laid down their arms. Soldiers from all sides participated in the widespread, unofficial ceasefires for the Christmas period. Troops, mostly German and British, exchanged Christmas greetings, songs and even gifts. Both sides also held joint burials where they mourned both their dead. They met in ‘no man’s land’, an area which was usually deadly. The truce began on this day in 1914 when German troops near Ypres decorated their trenches and sang carols, which led to responses from the British troops. As the war progressed, and the violence increased, suspicion grew between the two sides and superiors were stricter about ‘fraternisation with the enemy’ and so less truces were held. However, the truces of 1914 serve as a poignant example of humanity and peace in a horrific and violent situation.

Here’s what bothers me about this story. Right after this they go right back to killing each other. They met, shook hands, even played soccer together. Some of them exchanged little gifts. They learned each other’s names and took photos with each other. They saw up close and personal that the enemy was made up of human beings just like them, and looked them in the eyes, and then went right back to pointlessly slaughtering each other. 

What this says to me about human nature is pretty horrifying.



thescienceofreality:

The first female physician, and the thousand-year campaign against her. By ESTHER INGLIS-ARKELL via io9.

Trotula of Salerno has been the subject of a smear campaign lasting roughly one thousand years. Possibly. Or possibly she never existed.
In the 11th century, Salerno was the place to be if you wanted to be a physician. It had what some claim is the world’s first real medical school. It had hospitals and doctors that people would travel huge distances to visit. And it had each of those because of a solid scholarly tradition. Many physicians from Salerno wrote medical treatises, but the most famous is Trotula.

Trotula wrote medical books meant to instruct male doctors regarding the medical care of women. Since the vast majority of formally educated doctors were men, and religious and legal taboos often prevented them from practicing on women, few knew anything about gynecological problems. Trotula sought to fix that. She wrote two major books. One covered gynecological and obstetric problems. It included, controversially, the idea that sometimes men were the biological cause of conception problems, instead of just women. The other was more of an advice book for women, and dealt with cosmetic issues, from ways to treat puffy eyes to ways to soothing skin diseases. The two books represented a massive store of knowledge that male physicians wouldn’t have had access to if Trotula hadn’t studied to be a doctor, and picked up her pen.
Or were they books written by male physicians under a female pseudonym to avoid legal trouble? Since the books were first circulated, there have been rumors that the books were actually written by male doctors. Academic women were rare, and a woman receiving formal medical education would have been even more so. There was also a faction of people who believed that women were not capable of producing intellectual work.
These arguments came to a head in the 1500s, when historians and doctors announced that there never was a Trotula in the first place. Since then, she’s become a semi-mythical figure. Even those who believe in her existence sometimes doubt her work. The few facts that anyone has pertaining to the woman - that she may have been from a noble family, that she may have had a physician for a husband or a son - have been used to attribute the book to male relatives who used her name as a cover.
Most historians today believe that Trotula did exist, and that she did write both treatises. So if you ever want to dye your hair or treat snake bite while honoring an early female scientist, look up her books!
Via NCBI, Making Women’s Medicine Masculine, International Journal of Cosmetic Science, King’s College.

thescienceofreality:

The first female physician, and the thousand-year campaign against herBy ESTHER INGLIS-ARKELL via io9.

Trotula of Salerno has been the subject of a smear campaign lasting roughly one thousand years. Possibly. Or possibly she never existed.

In the 11th century, Salerno was the place to be if you wanted to be a physician. It had what some claim is the world’s first real medical school. It had hospitals and doctors that people would travel huge distances to visit. And it had each of those because of a solid scholarly tradition. Many physicians from Salerno wrote medical treatises, but the most famous is Trotula.

The first female physician, and the thousand-year campaign against her

Trotula wrote medical books meant to instruct male doctors regarding the medical care of women. Since the vast majority of formally educated doctors were men, and religious and legal taboos often prevented them from practicing on women, few knew anything about gynecological problems. Trotula sought to fix that. She wrote two major books. One covered gynecological and obstetric problems. It included, controversially, the idea that sometimes men were the biological cause of conception problems, instead of just women. The other was more of an advice book for women, and dealt with cosmetic issues, from ways to treat puffy eyes to ways to soothing skin diseases. The two books represented a massive store of knowledge that male physicians wouldn’t have had access to if Trotula hadn’t studied to be a doctor, and picked up her pen.

Or were they books written by male physicians under a female pseudonym to avoid legal trouble? Since the books were first circulated, there have been rumors that the books were actually written by male doctors. Academic women were rare, and a woman receiving formal medical education would have been even more so. There was also a faction of people who believed that women were not capable of producing intellectual work.

These arguments came to a head in the 1500s, when historians and doctors announced that there never was a Trotula in the first place. Since then, she’s become a semi-mythical figure. Even those who believe in her existence sometimes doubt her work. The few facts that anyone has pertaining to the woman - that she may have been from a noble family, that she may have had a physician for a husband or a son - have been used to attribute the book to male relatives who used her name as a cover.

Most historians today believe that Trotula did exist, and that she did write both treatises. So if you ever want to dye your hair or treat snake bite while honoring an early female scientist, look up her books!

Via NCBIMaking Women’s Medicine MasculineInternational Journal of Cosmetic ScienceKing’s College.


invisiblelad:

covenesque:

zuky:

thesmithian:


…[some] may not remember what made Iran-Contra such an extraordinary scandal. The Reagan administration “raised money privately” by selling weapons to a sworn enemy of the United States. Why? Because it wanted to fund an illegal war in Nicaragua. And when I say “illegal war,” I mean that quite literally—Congress told the Reagan administration, in no uncertain terms, that Reagan could not send money to the Contras. Period. The Reagan administration, unrestrained by laws and the Constitution, did so anyway, and much of the president’s national security team ended up under indictment.

more.

Reagan knew everything. However, I bet this Time magazine piece doesn’t get into the juiciest part of Iran-Contra, which is that in the 1980s the CIA put into operation a crack cocaine pipeline to import narcotics from Central and South America and distribute it in US inner cities. This is not a “conspiracy theory”, this is a documented conspiracy, most rigorously researched and reported by Pulitzer-prize winning journalist Gary Webb, whose series in the San Jose Mercury News and subsequent book “Dark Alliance” literally got him killed. To me, that’s the story of Iran-Contra: not that Reagan sold weapons to Iran, but that the US government imported and sold crack to Black America, as part of an arms and drugs trade which funded war in the Third World and which devastated lives and filled prisons in the USA.

I’m old enough to remember this and it’s depressing that everyone forgot.

This conflicts with the neo-con narrative fiction that Reagan was the best president ever…so of course its been filed out of sight and mind. If a democrat had done it though, the outrage would be heard to the high heavens…

invisiblelad:

covenesque:

zuky:

thesmithian:

…[some] may not remember what made Iran-Contra such an extraordinary scandal. The Reagan administration “raised money privately” by selling weapons to a sworn enemy of the United States. Why? Because it wanted to fund an illegal war in Nicaragua. And when I say “illegal war,” I mean that quite literally—Congress told the Reagan administration, in no uncertain terms, that Reagan could not send money to the Contras. Period. The Reagan administration, unrestrained by laws and the Constitution, did so anyway, and much of the president’s national security team ended up under indictment.

more.

Reagan knew everything. However, I bet this Time magazine piece doesn’t get into the juiciest part of Iran-Contra, which is that in the 1980s the CIA put into operation a crack cocaine pipeline to import narcotics from Central and South America and distribute it in US inner cities. This is not a “conspiracy theory”, this is a documented conspiracy, most rigorously researched and reported by Pulitzer-prize winning journalist Gary Webb, whose series in the San Jose Mercury News and subsequent book “Dark Alliance” literally got him killed. To me, that’s the story of Iran-Contra: not that Reagan sold weapons to Iran, but that the US government imported and sold crack to Black America, as part of an arms and drugs trade which funded war in the Third World and which devastated lives and filled prisons in the USA.

I’m old enough to remember this and it’s depressing that everyone forgot.

This conflicts with the neo-con narrative fiction that Reagan was the best president ever…so of course its been filed out of sight and mind. If a democrat had done it though, the outrage would be heard to the high heavens…



nezua:

fuckyeahmarxismleninism:

Today in history: February 2, 1848 - The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed between the U.S. and Mexico, ending the Mexican-American War (1846–48). With the defeat of its army and the fall of the capital, Mexico entered into negotiations to end the war. Mexico was forced to give the U.S. 55% of its land – the Mexican territories of Alta California and Santa Fé de Nuevo México – which now are the U.S. states of California, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado and Arizona as well as Texas. This unfair treaty paved the way for the national oppression of the Chicano people in what had been the top half of Mexico and is now the Southwestern U.S. 
(image: map of Mexico and the U.S. before the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)
Via Freedom Road Socialist Organization (Fight Back!)

What a nonsense name: “The Mexican American War.” It was the Invasion del Norte, an illegal provocation by the US because Polk had already decided to invade and needed a pretext. Gold was first discovered in Placerita Canyon (CA) on March 9, 1842, by Jose Francisco de Gracia—who was looking for a spot to take a siesta. So, a Mexican found gold on Mexican land, but a few years later, the US invades and the “war” ends in 1848: which coincidentally happens to be the year that John A. Sutter and James Marshal announce that *they* have discovered gold in California. I’m sure they drew up many flowery documents proclaiming as much, too.
As we know, this gold rush financed much development of the (now-)USA, made many people rich, and started fortunes that continue down family lines today. It was stolen, all of it. Like so much of the USA’s power today. Stolen, borrowed, built on billions of bones.
And the dumbed-down “Patriots” today wonder why so much comes back to haunt the USA, with its rich history of theft, lies, and slavery.

nezua:

fuckyeahmarxismleninism:

Today in history: February 2, 1848 - The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed between the U.S. and Mexico, ending the Mexican-American War (1846–48). With the defeat of its army and the fall of the capital, Mexico entered into negotiations to end the war. Mexico was forced to give the U.S. 55% of its land – the Mexican territories of Alta California and Santa Fé de Nuevo México – which now are the U.S. states of California, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado and Arizona as well as Texas. This unfair treaty paved the way for the national oppression of the Chicano people in what had been the top half of Mexico and is now the Southwestern U.S.

(image: map of Mexico and the U.S. before the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)

Via Freedom Road Socialist Organization (Fight Back!)

What a nonsense name: “The Mexican American War.” It was the Invasion del Norte, an illegal provocation by the US because Polk had already decided to invade and needed a pretext. Gold was first discovered in Placerita Canyon (CA) on March 9, 1842, by Jose Francisco de Gracia—who was looking for a spot to take a siesta. So, a Mexican found gold on Mexican land, but a few years later, the US invades and the “war” ends in 1848: which coincidentally happens to be the year that John A. Sutter and James Marshal announce that *they* have discovered gold in California. I’m sure they drew up many flowery documents proclaiming as much, too.

As we know, this gold rush financed much development of the (now-)USA, made many people rich, and started fortunes that continue down family lines today. It was stolen, all of it. Like so much of the USA’s power today. Stolen, borrowed, built on billions of bones.

And the dumbed-down “Patriots” today wonder why so much comes back to haunt the USA, with its rich history of theft, lies, and slavery.


MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. DAY

I realize that it will cause restless nights sometime. It might cause losing a job; it will cause suffering and sacrifice. It might even cause physical death for some. But if physical death is the price that some must pay to free their children from a permanent life of psychological death, then nothing can be more Christian. Keep going today. Keep moving amid every obstacle. Keep moving amid every mountain of opposition. If you will do that with dignity, when the history books are written in the future, the historians will have to look back and say, ‘There lived a great people. A people with ‘fleecy locks and black complexion,’ but a people who injected new meaning into the veins of civilization; a people which stood up with dignity and honour and saved Western civilization in her darkest hour; a people that gave new integrity and a new dimension of love to our civilization. When that happens, “the morning stars will sing together, and the sons of God will shout for joy.”

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.
PRAYER PILGRIMAGE, 1957


zuky:

brashblacknonbeliever:

In honor of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s birthday, I think we should all take the time to read and view some of his work. Too often he gets quoted out of context by people with no real understanding of what he was trying to say.

I Have A Dream Speech [text] [video]

Letter From Birmingham Jail [text]

The MLK That’s Never Quoted [gifset] [video]

Where Do We Go From Here? [text]

I Have Been To The Mountaintop [text] [audio]

Longtime readers here know that, from my perspective, Dr. King’s most important yet untaught speech is “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break the Silence”, delivered at the Riverside Church in Harlem on April 4, 1967.

This is the speech which turned White Liberal USA against him with seething hostility, because of the “lack of gratitude” it showed after all they had done for him. In it, he attacks US imperialism, names “the giant triplets of racism, materialism, and militarism”, shows sympathy for Communist Vietnam and Communist China, and softens his stand on non-violence by asserting that “I could never again raise my voice against the violence of the oppressed in the ghettos without having first spoken clearly to the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today — my own government”. 

This went far beyond what was understood at that time as “Civil Rights”. This was dangerous revolutionary thought, and he knew it. This is the Dr. King that is scrupulously erased from official US history as surely as he was killed by a bullet in Memphis less than a year after delivering this speech.


whitecolonialism:

December 17, 1944: Internment of Japanese-Americans Comes to an End.

On December 17th, 1944 the United States under the direction of U.S. Major General Henry C. Pratt issued Public Proclamation No. 21 stating that on January 2nd, 1945 all Japanese-Americans “evacuees” from the West Coast could return back to their homes.

The internment of Japanese-Americans began exactly ten weeks after the Empire of Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which gave authorization for the removal of any or all people from military areas. As a result the military defined the entire West Coast, home to a majority of Japanese-Americans as military area. Within a couple of months over 110,000 Japanese-Americans were relocated to internment camps built by the US military scattered all over the nation. For the next two years Japanese-Americans would live under dire living conditions and at times abuse from their military guards.

Throughout World War II ten people were found to be spies for the Empire of Japan, not one of them was of Japanese ancestry. Forty-four year would pass until Ronald Reagan and the United States made an official apology to the surviving Japanese-Americans who were relocated, and were given $20,000 tax-free.


freedominwickedness:

eccecorinna:

hotelsongs:

carecub | xekstrin | wrathofprawn:



for those not in the know, night witches were russian lady bombers who bombed the shit out of german lines in WW2. Thing is though, they had the oldest, noisiest, crappest planes in the entire world. The engines used to conk out halfway through their missions, so they had to climb out on the wings mid flight to restart the props. the planes were also so noisy that to stop germans from hearing them combing and starting up their anti aircraft guns, they’d climb up to a certain height, coast down to german positions, drop their bombs, restart their engines in midair, and get the fuck out of dodge.
their leader flew over 200 missions and was never captured.

how the fuck is this not taught in every single history class ever



pretty sure I’ve reblogged this before but it can happen again

This is laughably incorrect.
Although technologically obsolete as of WWII, the Polikarpov Po-2 “Kukuruznik” biplanes flown by the 588th Night Bomber Regiment were in no way ” the oldest, noisiest, crappest planes in the entire world.”
Fact 1: The Po-2 was first flown in 1929 and remained in production until 1953 due to its low cost and extreme reliability. It is, in fact, the second most produced aircraft in history, and the most produced biplane in history. The night bombers flew brand new, specially modified Po-2s fitted with bomb racks and machine guns.
Fact 2: The Po-2 was extremely quiet; Germans nicknamed it the Nähmaschine (“sewing machine”) due to the muted rattling sound its tiny little 99-horsepower radial engine made. The night bombers would fly these quiet, sneaky little planes just a few meters off the ground, then climb to higher altitude, cut the engine, and glide to the attack point so that the Germans would have no warning of an incoming attack other than the ghostly whistle of wind through the wing bracing-wires.
Fact 3: Saying “their leader flew over 200 missions” is both inaccurate and damning with faint praise. All of the 588th Night Bomber Regiment pilots flew multiple missions every night, with the record being eighteen missions flown back-to-back-to-back-to-back in a single night. By the end of the war, most of the “Night Witches” had around a thousand combat sorties under their belts.
The Night Witches were THAT fucking badass, and it pisses me off when people get it all wrong because they’re too damn lazy to do their homework.

freedominwickedness:

eccecorinna:

hotelsongs:

carecub | xekstrin | wrathofprawn:

for those not in the know, night witches were russian lady bombers who bombed the shit out of german lines in WW2. Thing is though, they had the oldest, noisiest, crappest planes in the entire world. The engines used to conk out halfway through their missions, so they had to climb out on the wings mid flight to restart the props. the planes were also so noisy that to stop germans from hearing them combing and starting up their anti aircraft guns, they’d climb up to a certain height, coast down to german positions, drop their bombs, restart their engines in midair, and get the fuck out of dodge.

their leader flew over 200 missions and was never captured.

how the fuck is this not taught in every single history class ever

pretty sure I’ve reblogged this before but it can happen again

This is laughably incorrect.

Although technologically obsolete as of WWII, the Polikarpov Po-2 “Kukuruznik” biplanes flown by the 588th Night Bomber Regiment were in no way ” the oldest, noisiest, crappest planes in the entire world.”

Fact 1: The Po-2 was first flown in 1929 and remained in production until 1953 due to its low cost and extreme reliability. It is, in fact, the second most produced aircraft in history, and the most produced biplane in history. The night bombers flew brand new, specially modified Po-2s fitted with bomb racks and machine guns.

Fact 2: The Po-2 was extremely quiet; Germans nicknamed it the Nähmaschine (“sewing machine”) due to the muted rattling sound its tiny little 99-horsepower radial engine made. The night bombers would fly these quiet, sneaky little planes just a few meters off the ground, then climb to higher altitude, cut the engine, and glide to the attack point so that the Germans would have no warning of an incoming attack other than the ghostly whistle of wind through the wing bracing-wires.

Fact 3: Saying “their leader flew over 200 missions” is both inaccurate and damning with faint praise. All of the 588th Night Bomber Regiment pilots flew multiple missions every night, with the record being eighteen missions flown back-to-back-to-back-to-back in a single night. By the end of the war, most of the “Night Witches” had around a thousand combat sorties under their belts.

The Night Witches were THAT fucking badass, and it pisses me off when people get it all wrong because they’re too damn lazy to do their homework.



While some have called the 21st century the end of segregation in American society, new research comes to a very different conclusion.
Researchers at Dartmouth, the University of Georgia, and the University of Washington decided to look at neighborhood data from the U.S. Census in 1990, 2000, and 2010 to compare trends in racial diversity. They then created “cartographic visualizations” of 53 large metropolitan areas and every state in the United States. What they found might–or might not–surprise you.
While the census data did show an increase in racial diversity in the country’s largest cities over the past 20 years, several other trends are also evident–African-Americans remain concentrated in segregated neighborhoods; highly diverse neighborhoods are actually rare; and newly arrived immigrants continue to settle in concentrated racial residential patterns.
Read More

While some have called the 21st century the end of segregation in American society, new research comes to a very different conclusion.

Researchers at Dartmouth, the University of Georgia, and the University of Washington decided to look at neighborhood data from the U.S. Census in 1990, 2000, and 2010 to compare trends in racial diversity. They then created “cartographic visualizations” of 53 large metropolitan areas and every state in the United States. What they found might–or might not–surprise you.

While the census data did show an increase in racial diversity in the country’s largest cities over the past 20 years, several other trends are also evident–African-Americans remain concentrated in segregated neighborhoods; highly diverse neighborhoods are actually rare; and newly arrived immigrants continue to settle in concentrated racial residential patterns.

Read More


nerdinista:

redheadpowers:

platinumpixels:

volpesvolpes:

unseilie:

sarahvonkrolock:

gaysexagainstawall:

them-days-was-olden-as-fuck:

The spread of the black death.

Poland

Poland, tell us your secret.

Poland is the old new Madagascar. 

If I remember correctly, Poland’s secret is that the jews where being blamed all over europe (as usual) as scapegoats for the black plague. Poland was the only place that accepted Jewish refugees, so pretty much all of them moved there. 
Now, one of the major causes of getting the plague was poor hygiene. This proved very effective for the plague because everyone threw their poop into the streets because there were no sewers, and literally no one bathed because it was against their religion. Unless they were jewish, who actually bathed relatively often. When all the jews moved to Poland, they brought bathing with them, and so the plague had little effect there.
Milan survived by quarantining its city and burning down the house of anyone showing early symptoms, with the entire family inside it. 

I reblogged this tons of times, but the Milan info is new.
Damn Italy, you scary.



I’m purebred Polish and I never knew this. No wonder we’re so anal with cleaning.

nerdinista:

redheadpowers:

platinumpixels:

volpesvolpes:

unseilie:

sarahvonkrolock:

gaysexagainstawall:

them-days-was-olden-as-fuck:

The spread of the black death.

Poland

Poland, tell us your secret.

Poland is the old new Madagascar. 

If I remember correctly, Poland’s secret is that the jews where being blamed all over europe (as usual) as scapegoats for the black plague. Poland was the only place that accepted Jewish refugees, so pretty much all of them moved there. 

Now, one of the major causes of getting the plague was poor hygiene. This proved very effective for the plague because everyone threw their poop into the streets because there were no sewers, and literally no one bathed because it was against their religion. Unless they were jewish, who actually bathed relatively often. When all the jews moved to Poland, they brought bathing with them, and so the plague had little effect there.

Milan survived by quarantining its city and burning down the house of anyone showing early symptoms, with the entire family inside it. 

I reblogged this tons of times, but the Milan info is new.

Damn Italy, you scary.

I’m purebred Polish and I never knew this. No wonder we’re so anal with cleaning.


youngbadmanbrown:

White History Month, Day 2: Calvin Coolidge and American Homogenity:

On May 26, 1924, Calvin Coolidge signed into law the Immigration Act of 1924, a United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, according to the Census of 1890. 
The law was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans, mainly Jews fleeing persecution in Poland and Russia, who were immigrating in large numbers starting in the 1890s, as well as prohibiting the immigration of Middle Easterners, East Asians and Asian Indians.
According to the U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian, “In all its parts, the most basic purpose of the 1924 Immigration Act was to preserve the ideal of American homogeneity.” Congressional opposition was minimal.

The 1924 Act also established the “consular control system” of immigration, which divided responsibility for immigration between the State Department and the Immigration and Naturalization Service. It mandated that no alien should be allowed to enter the United States without a valid immigration visa issued by an American consular officer abroad.
It provided that no alien ineligible to become a citizen could be admitted to the United States as an immigrant. This was aimed primarily at Japanese and Chinese aliens.
 Congressman Albert Johnson and Senator David Reedwere the two main architects. In the wake of intense lobbying, the Act passed with strong congressional support. 
Proponents of the Act sought to establish a distinct American identity by favoring native-born Americans over Southern and Eastern Europeans in order to “maintain the racial preponderance of the basic strain on our people and thereby to stabilize the ethnic composition of the population”. Reed told the Senate that earlier legislation “disregards entirely those of us who are interested in keeping American stock up to the highest standard – that is, the people who were born here”
Some of the law’s strongest supporters were influenced by Madison Grant and his 1916 book, The Passing of the Great Race. Grant was a eugenicist and an advocate of the racial hygiene theory. His data purported to show the superiority of the founding Northern European races. Most proponents of the law were rather concerned with upholding an ethnic status quo and avoiding competition with foreign workers.
The Act barred specific origins from the Asia–Pacific Triangle, which included Japan, China, the Philippines (then under U.S. control), Siam (Thailand), French Indochina (Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia), Singapore (then a British colony), Korea, Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), Burma, India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Malaya (mainland part of Malaysia). Based on the Naturalization Act of 1790, these immigrants, being non-white, were not eligible for naturalization, and the Act forbade further immigration of any persons ineligible to be naturalized. The Act set no limits on immigration from the Latin American countries
Source

youngbadmanbrown:

White History Month, Day 2: Calvin Coolidge and American Homogenity:

On May 26, 1924, Calvin Coolidge signed into law the Immigration Act of 1924, a United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, according to the Census of 1890

The law was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeansmainly Jews fleeing persecution in Poland and Russia, who were immigrating in large numbers starting in the 1890s, as well as prohibiting the immigration of Middle EasternersEast Asians and Asian Indians.

According to the U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian, “In all its parts, the most basic purpose of the 1924 Immigration Act was to preserve the ideal of American homogeneity.” Congressional opposition was minimal.

The 1924 Act also established the “consular control system” of immigration, which divided responsibility for immigration between the State Department and the Immigration and Naturalization Service. It mandated that no alien should be allowed to enter the United States without a valid immigration visa issued by an American consular officer abroad.

It provided that no alien ineligible to become a citizen could be admitted to the United States as an immigrant. This was aimed primarily at Japanese and Chinese aliens.

 Congressman Albert Johnson and Senator David Reedwere the two main architects. In the wake of intense lobbying, the Act passed with strong congressional support. 

Proponents of the Act sought to establish a distinct American identity by favoring native-born Americans over Southern and Eastern Europeans in order to “maintain the racial preponderance of the basic strain on our people and thereby to stabilize the ethnic composition of the population”. Reed told the Senate that earlier legislation “disregards entirely those of us who are interested in keeping American stock up to the highest standard – that is, the people who were born here”

Some of the law’s strongest supporters were influenced by Madison Grant and his 1916 book, The Passing of the Great Race. Grant was a eugenicist and an advocate of the racial hygiene theory. His data purported to show the superiority of the founding Northern European races. Most proponents of the law were rather concerned with upholding an ethnic status quo and avoiding competition with foreign workers.

The Act barred specific origins from the Asia–Pacific Triangle, which included JapanChina, the Philippines (then under U.S. control), Siam (Thailand), French Indochina (LaosVietnam, and Cambodia), Singapore (then a British colony), KoreaDutch East Indies (Indonesia), BurmaIndiaCeylon (Sri Lanka) and Malaya (mainland part of Malaysia). Based on the Naturalization Act of 1790, these immigrants, being non-white, were not eligible for naturalization, and the Act forbade further immigration of any persons ineligible to be naturalized. The Act set no limits on immigration from the Latin American countries

Source


talldarkbishoujo:

wretchedoftheearth:

I’ve never seen a GIF of this.

I was just reading about this during a wiki binge on Olympics incidents and did a little research on it. I never knew how deep the message was that Smith and Carlos were trying to send. Just about everything they wore and how they wore it had symbolism attached to it. (unzipped tracksuits for solidarity with blue collar workers, necklace of beads for lynching victims, etc) Calling it a “black power salute” is really reductive and it’s a shame (and predictable) that if it’s taught at all, that’s what it’s boiled down to.
Another thing I didn’t know: the Australian guy who came in second wore a patch for solidarity with them, he was protesting racist Australian immigration policies. When he passed away, Smith and Carlos were pallbearers at his funeral.

talldarkbishoujo:

wretchedoftheearth:

I’ve never seen a GIF of this.

I was just reading about this during a wiki binge on Olympics incidents and did a little research on it. I never knew how deep the message was that Smith and Carlos were trying to send. Just about everything they wore and how they wore it had symbolism attached to it. (unzipped tracksuits for solidarity with blue collar workers, necklace of beads for lynching victims, etc) Calling it a “black power salute” is really reductive and it’s a shame (and predictable) that if it’s taught at all, that’s what it’s boiled down to.

Another thing I didn’t know: the Australian guy who came in second wore a patch for solidarity with them, he was protesting racist Australian immigration policies. When he passed away, Smith and Carlos were pallbearers at his funeral.